Ceara de albine, Bibliografie A-Z


  • *** The beehive products, food, health, beauty (1974, 1989).
    Apimondia Publishing House
    , Bucharest, Romania; 160 pp. (*** 1989 edition).


  • *** (1976, 1980, 1981, 1989) (Romania) –  Apitherapy today. On the composition and utilisation of bee products and preparations in nutrition and therapeutics with regard to their biological value.
    Apimondia Publishing House, Bucharest, Romania.
    English edition, 1976, 107 pp. (***);
    French edition, 1976, 105 pp (***);
    German edition, 1980, 103 pp. (***);
    Romanian second edition, 1981;
    Romanian third edition, 1989, 103 pp. (***).


  • *** Apitherapy in Romania (1994) (Romanian).
    Apimondia Publishing House, Bucharest, Romania, 174 pp.  ISBN  973-605-016-5 (***).


  • *** (1997) (Canada) –  The Radiant, Youthful Beekeeper,
    in Bee sCene, June, # 3, vol. 13,  17 (reprinted from an old issue of Bee Line) (***).


  • Alexe Diana (1998) (Romania) –  Minunea melifica in biocosmetica moderna (Romanian),
    in Romania apicola 3,  26-27 (***).



  • Artemov, V. (1965) (USSR) –  Synthesis of the discussions on the papers pertaining to the symposium on apitherapy,
    in the XX-Th. Apimondia Congress, Bucharest, Romania.



  • Asis, M. (1988) (Cuba) Los productos de la colmena. Composicion y uso de la miel, cera, polen, jalea real, propoleo y veneno de las abejas (Spanish).
    Centro de Informacion y Documentacion Agropecuaria (CIDA), Ciudad de la Habana, 65 pages.



  • Asis, M. (1988) –  Les produits de la ruche: composition et utilisations du miel, de la cire, du pollen, de la gélée royale, de la propolis et du venin d’abeille.
    Centro de Informacion y Documentacion Agropecuario. Havana. Cuba.  65 pp.                    1303L/90.



  • Battershill, Constable, Crouch, Duffin and Pinder (contributors) (1996) –  Beeswax crafts.
    80 pp.
    (about candle making; modelling; making beauty creams, soaps and polishes; encaustic art and wax crayons.



  • Bänziger Erica (1997) (Switzerland) –  Genuss und Gesundheit aus dem Bienenstock.
    Midena Verlag GmbH, ISBN 3-310-00395-7, 125 pp.
    (beeswax page 60) (***).



  • Bernal, J. L.; del Nozal, M. J.;  Toribio, L.;  Jimenez, J. J.;  Atienza, J.[i] (1997) (Spain)  –  High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of benomyl and carbendazim residues in apiarian samples,
    in J Chromatogr A, Nov 7; 787 (1-2),  129-136. [ii]



  • Berthold, Robert Jr. (1993) (USA) –  Beeswax Crafting.
    Connecticut. Wicwas Press. ISBN 1-878075-02-0; 128 pp. (***).



  • Bisson, C. S.; Vansell, G. H.;  Dye, W. B. (1940) (USA)  –  Investigations on the physical and chemical properties of beeswax,
    in S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 716.



  • Blomquist,G.J., Roubik,D.W.,  Buchmann,S.L. (1985)  –  Wax chemistry of two stingless bees of the Trigonisca group (Apidae: Meliponinae),
    in Biochem. Physiol. 82B,  p.137-142.



  • Bogdanov, S. (1993) (Switzerland) –  Criteria used in the evaluation of the quality of the beeswax,
    in Apiacta XXVIII,  102-107.



  • Bradic Olga; Popeskovic, D. (1997) (Serbia, Yugoslavia)  –  Honey and Beeswax as Drugs in the Middle Ages Serbian Medicine (IV),
    in the XXXV-Th. Apimondia Congress, Antwerp, Belgium.



  • Brown, Ron (1981, 1989, 1995) (UK) – 
    Burrowbridge, Somerset: Bee Books New & Old.
    ISBN (for 1995 edition) 0 905652 363;  87 pp. (***).



  • Callow, R. K. (1963) –  Chemical and biochemical problems of beeswax,
    in Bee World 44 (3),  95-101.



  • Canteneur, R. (1975) (France) –  Bee protection for nature protection,
    in the XXV-Th. Apimondia Congress, Grenoble, France,  171-172 (***).



  • Carbajal, D.; Molina, V.;  Valdes, S.;  Arruzazabala, M.L.;  Mas, R.;  Magraner, J.[1] (1998) (Cuba)  – Anti-inflammatory activity of D-002: an active product isolated from beeswax,
    in Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, Oct;59(4),  235-38 (***-abstract). [iii]



  • Cerimagic, H. (1969) (Yugoslavia) –  Activity of the bee colony and relation thereof to intensity of wax production of the honey bee (Apis mellifica),
    in the XXII-Nd. Apimondia Congress, Munich, Germany.



  • Coggshall, L. William; Morse, A. Roger (1984, 1995) (USA)  –  Production, Harvesting, Processing and Products.
     New Haven Connecticut: Wicwas Press.  ISBN 1-878075-06-3.  192 pp. (***).



  • Contessi Alberto (1983) (Italy) –  Le Api. Biologia, allevamento, prodotti.
    Bologna. Italy. ISBN 88-206-2263-7



  • Crane Eva (1975) (U.K.) –  Man’s utilisation of natural resources through bees,
    in the XXV-Th. Apimondia Congress, Grenoble, France.



  • Crane Eva (1978) (U.K.) –  Beeswax and other hive products in the tropics.
    Bibliography of tropical apiculture Part 20. London : International Bee Research Association B, AA290/80.



  • Crane Eva (1983) –  The Archaeology of Beekeeping.
    London: Duckworth.



  • Crane Eva (1990) –  Bees and Beekeeping: Science, Practice and World Resources.
    Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publ.



  • De Greef, M.; De Wael, L.;  Van Laere, O. (1994) (Belgium)  –  The Determination of the Fluvalinate Residues in the Belgian Honey and Beeswax,
    in Apiacta XXIX, #3,  83-87 (***).



  • Dietz, A. (1970) –  Scanning electron microscopy study of the structure of honey bee wax scales,
    in Ga. Entomol. Soc. 5 (1),  pp.1-6.



  • Downing, D.T., Kranz,Z.H.,  Lamberton,J.A.,  Murray,K.E.,  Redcliffe,A.H. (1961)  –  Studies in waxes. Beeswax: a spectroscopic and gas chromatographic examination,
    in Australian Journal of Chemistry 14 (2),  pp.253-263.



  • Dustmann, J. H.; Gayger, J. (1983) (Germany) –  Determination of the chlorinated hydrocarbons content in beeswax, honey and pollen,
    in the XXIX-Th. Apimondia Congress, Budapest, Hungary,  356-358 (***).



  • Garcia, M. et al. (1995) –  Allergic contact dermatitis from a beeswax nipple-protective,
    in Contact Dermatitis Dec;33(6),  440-41.



  • Giurcan Constantin (1987) (Romania) –  Extractia cerii din fagurii vechi,
    in Apicultura in Romania, august,  14-15.



  • Harnaj, V. (1983) (Romania) –  Introduction in the industrial methods in beekeeping,
    in the XXIX-Th. Apimondia Congress, Budapest, Hungary.



  • Hepburn, H. R. (1986) –  Honeybees and Wax: An Experimental natural History.
    Berlin: Springer-Verlag.



  • Herold, Edmund (1970) (Germany) –  Heilwerte aus dem Bienenvolk (Honig, Pollen, Gelee Royale, Wachs).
    Ehrenwirth Verlag, München, Germany.
    (B, AA1042/71).



  • Herold Edmund; Leibold Gerhard (1991) (Germany)  –  Heilwerte aus dem Bienenvolk. Honig, Pollen, Gelee Royale, Wachs, Propolis und Bienengift – Ihre Bedeutung für die Gesundheit und Behandlung von Krankheiten.
    Ehrenwirth Verlag Gmbh, München, 242 pages; ISBN 3-431-03162-5 (***).



  • Höffel Ingrid (1983) (Germany) –  Residues of heavy metals in bee colonies,
    in the XXIX-Th. Apimondia Congress, Budapest, Hungary,  233 (***-abstract).



  • Hristea L. Constantin; Ialomiteanu Mircea (1966, 1969, 1972) (Romania)  –  The bee products for human health (Romanian).
    Asociatia Crescatorilor de albine. Biblioteca Apicultorului, nr. 5/1966, 116 pages (Propolis pages: 74-82) (***); nr. 8/1969;  the Third edition, in Apimondia Publishing House, 1972.



  • Horstmann, H. J. (1965) –  Einige biochemische Überlegungen zur Bildung von Bienenwachs aus Zucker,
    in Bienenforschung 8,  pp.125-28.



  • Jones, Richard (1998) (United Kingdom) –  Bees For Health,
    in the VIII-Th. International Apitherapy Symposium, Portoroz, Slovenia (***).



  • Killion, E. Eugene (1981) (USA) –  Honey in the Comb.
    Dadant & Sons Pubblishing House.
    ISBN  0-915698-08-0 ;  148 pp. (***).



  • Kolev, J.; Dimtcheva Vera (1997) (Bulgaria)  –  Beeswax with propolis treatment on patients having low back pain,
    in the XXXV-Th. Apimondia Congress, Antwerp, Belgium.



  • Köwing, Ernst (1992, 1994, 1998) (Germany) –  Gesundheit durch die Bienen. Die hilfe der Biene zum (Über-) Leben.
    Immen Verlag, Oldenburg, Germany, 1992, 125 pages; ISBN 3-929193-00-0 (***).



  • Lautie, R. (1972)   Miels, cires, pollens,
    in Vie et action, Juillet -Aout, Lille.



  • Liu, F.; Sun, D.[2] (1996) (China)  –  Active constituents lowering blood-lipid in beeswax (Chinese),
    in Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih, Sep;21(9),  553-54, 576. (***-abstract). [iv]



  • Lucente, P.; Cavalli, M.;  Vezzani, C.; Orlandi, C.; Vincenzi, C. [3] (1996) (Italy)  – Contact cheilitis due to beeswax,
         in Contact Dermatitis, Oct;35(4),  258.



  • Marza, Eugen (1997) (Romania) –  Sporirea productiei de ceara prin folosirea ramelor claditoare (Romanian),
    in Romania apicola, # 11 (Noiembrie),  14-16 (***).



  • Mãrghitas, Alexandru Liviu (1997) (Romania) –  Albinele si produsele lor (Romanian).
    Editura Ceres
    , 381 pagini, 105 ilustratii, 21 tabele; 100 de pagini dedicate produselor apicole (proprietati, falsuri, insusiri terapeutice etc.).



  • Millington Daphne (1992) –  Traditional candlemaking: simple methods of manufacture.
    40 pp.
    (illustrated guide to small-scale methods).



  • Nardi Umberto (1996) (Italy) –  Curarsi con il Miele, Polline, Propoli, Pappa Reale e Veleno d’api.
    Aporie Edizione.
    ISBN 88-85192-11-4.



  • Olariu,T., Daghie,V.,  Nicolau Nadia (1983) (Romania)  –  Etudes cliniques et bactériologiques du produit résulté de la désoperculation des rayons,
    in the XXIX-Th.  Apimondia Congress, Budapest, Hungary,  430 (***).



  • Parkhill, M. Joe (1982) (USA) –  Wonderful World of Bee Pollen. Honey. Propolis. Royal Jelly. Beeswax.
    Country Bazaar Publishing Co.
    Berryville, Arizona.
    ISBN 0-936744-06-5 (***).



  • Popescu,O., Braileanu,Cl.,  Fica,C.,  Beaca M.,  Gheorghiniu El.,  Longhin S.,  Popescu A. (1965) (Romania)  –  Study of protective pharmaceutical and anti-solar forms,
    in the XX-Th. Apimondia Congress, Bucharest, Romania,  517-526 (***).



  • Potschinkova Pavlina (1992, 1999) (Bulgaria) –  Bienenprodukte in der Medizin. Apitherapie.
    Ehrenwirth Verlag Gmbh, München, Germany, 169 pages;  ISBN 3-431-03247-8 (***). 1999 edition (Apitherapie. Die Heilkraft von Honig & Co.) has as ISBN 3-431-04010-1.



  • Potschinkova Pavlina (1996) (Bulgaria) –  Handbuch der apireflextherapie (Behandlung und Selbsthilfe mit Akupunktur, Akupressur und Bienenprodukten) (p.137-39).
    in Sonntag Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany. ISBN 3-87758-097-1. (396 pages) (***).



  • Proserpio, G. (1981) (Italy) –  Cosmetic products with beehive products (Italian).
    Erboristeria Domani Libri, l’ape cosmetica, Milan, Italy,  142 pages (***-abstract in honey bibliography).



  • Ribbands, C. R. (1953) –  The Behaviour and Social Life of Honeybees.       London: Bee Research Association.



  • Root, H. H. (1951) –  Beeswax: Its Properties, Testing, Production and Applications.
    Brooklyn, NY: Chemical Publ. Co.



  • Seeley, T. C.; Morse, R. A. (1976)  –  The nest of the honey bee (Apis mellifera),
    in Insectes Soc. 23,  pp.495-512.



  • Stoyanova Stoyanka (1997) (Bulgaria) –  Wax treatment with propolis of degenerative articular diseases (arthrosis),
    in the XXXV-Th. Apimondia Congress, Antwerp, Belgium.



  • Streibl, M.; Stransky, K.;  Storm, F. (1966)  –  Über einige neue Kohlenwasserstoffe im Wachs der Honigbiene (Apis mellifera ),
    in Fette Seif. Anstr. Mittel 68 (10),  Seiten 799-805;
    in Apicultural Abstracts 584/1967.



  • Tihonov,A.I., Iavtusenko,S.V.,  Acilov,I.  Iarnih,T.G. (1986) (USSR)  –  Some facts about wax extracted from propolis,
    in Apiacta #1,  5-8 (***).



  • Tischer, J. (1940) –  Über die Herkunft der gelben Farbstoffe des Bienenwachses,
    in Z. 267,  Seiten 14-22;
    in Apicultural Abstracts 418/1964.



  • Tulloch, A. P. (1970) –  The composition of beeswax and other waxes secreted by insects,
    in Lipids 5,  247-258.



  • Tulloch, A. P. (1980) –  Beeswax – composition and analysis,
    in Bee World 61(2),  47-62.
    Reprint. ISBN 0 86098 087 1. (***).



  • Uccusic, Paul (1982, 1984, 1985) –  Doktor Biene. Bienenprodukte: Ihre Heilkraft und Anwendung (German).
    Ariston Verlag, Genf, Germany,  1982, 198 pages; ISBN 3-453-06997-8; 5 Aufl. 1985.                                               1328/83.



  • Vansell, G. H.; Bisson, C. S. (1935) (USA)  –  Origin of colour in western beeswax,
    in Econ. Entomol. 28,  pp.1001-1002.



  • Vansell, G. H.; Bisson, C. S. (1940) (USA)  –  Brief presentation of the characteristics, contaminants, processing and uses of beeswax,
    in U.S. Dept. Agr., Bur. & Pl. Quar. E-495.
    (B, CA 34 : 3118).



  • Vergeron, P. (1967) –  La cire d’abeille, sa chimie et sa biosynthèse, son utilisation dans la ruche,
    in Prog. 3391,  pp.428-432.



  • Volcinschi, Traian (1988) (Romania) –  The Wax (Romanian).
    Apimondia Publishing House. 428 (***).



  • Weiss, K. (1965) –  Über den zuckerverbrauch und die Beanspruchund der Bienen bei der Wachserzeugung,
    in Bienenforschung 8,  pp.106-24.



  • White C. Elaine (1993) –  Super Formulas: Arts & Crafts: How to Make More than 360 Useful Products that Contain Honey and Beeswax.
    in Valley Hills Press, 114 pages;
    IBRA. 120 pages (a very useful book for all who want to “add value” to honeybee products).



  • White C. Elaine (1995) –  Soap recipes: Seventy tried-and-true ways to make modern soap with herbs, beeswax and vegetable oils.
    224 pp.



  • Zhongpu, Li (1989) (Chine) –  Bee venom treatment for improving the sexual function,
    in the XXXII-Nd. Apimondia Congress, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,  525 (***-abstract). [v]



[1] Center of Natural Products National Center for Scientific Research, C. Havana, Cuba.


[2] Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou.

[3] Department of Dermatology, University of Bologna, Italy.


[i] Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, Spain.


[ii] Simple procedures for the extraction and chromatographic determination of benomyl and carbendazim in honey, bees wax, larvae, bees and pollen are proposed. The fungicides were extracted from honey, larvae and bees using ethyl acetate, while methanol was more suitable for wax and pollen samples. Pollen extracts need a further clean-up step with n-hexane. The determination is carried out by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The procedures have been applied to the analysis of benomyl on honey and larvae samples from hives whose bees were nourished with artificial food mixed with benomyl.
PMID: 9408999, UI: 98073393.


[iii] Carbajal, D.;  Molina, V.;  Valdes, S.;  Arruzazabala, M.L.;  Mas, R.;  Magraner, J.[iii] (1998) (Cuba)  – Anti-inflammatory activity of D-002: an active product isolated from beeswax,
in Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, Oct;59(4),  pp.235-38.


D-002 is a natural mixture of high molecular weight alcohols isolated and purified from beeswax, which contains triacontanol among its main components. This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of D-002 administered by the oral route in two animal models commonly used in the pharmacological screening of anti-inflammatory drugs. D-002 administered orally to rats (100 and 200 mg/kg) produced a mild but significant reduction of exudate volume in carrageenan-induced pleuritic inflammation that was accompanied by a marked and significant decrease of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) levels in the exudate. D-002 (25, 50 and 200 mg/kg) also significantly diminished the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma in rats. In both cases, D-002 was less effective than indomethacin, which was used as an established anti-inflammatory reference drug. On the other hand, D-002 administered from 25-1000 mg/kg did not induce erosions or gastromucosal lesions in rats, which differs from results usually obtained with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These results indicate that D-002 is a mild anti-inflammatory agent without any ulcerogenic effect associated. The results suggest that these effects are probably not mediated through an inhibition of cyclooxygenase, but a reduction in LTB4 levels induced by D-002 could explain these results.


[iv] Liu, F.;  Sun, D.[iv] (1996) (China)  –  Active constituents lowering blood-lipid in beeswax (Chinese),
in Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih, Sep;21(9),  pp.553-54, 576.

Three compounds were isolated from the active fraction lowering blood-lipid in the traditional Chinese beeswax (Apis cerana or A. mellifera). They were identified as dotriacontanol, triacontanol and octacosanol by chemical and spectroscopic methods.



Li ZHONGPU (China)


Die klassische chinesische Medizin erwähnt schon seit langem, daß die Im­potenz mit Bienengift und Waben geheilt werden kann, da in diesen Waben nach dem Migrieren der Bienen etwas Bienengift übrigbleibt. 1960 beobachtete der Ver­fasser, daß ein zufälliger Bienenstich in den Knöchel einen impotenten Kranken vollständig heilte.

Ab 1966 behandelte der Verfasser 3.015 impotente Patienten durch Stiche le­bendiger Bienen in den Punkten Rangu und Taixi des Fußes. Die erzielte Wirkung war 78,2 %-ig. Wenn täglich auch noch 30 g Acanthopanax (dreimal täglich) zuge­geben wird, dann ist die Wirkung 98,5 %-ig. Die schwerkranken Patienten brau­chen zusätzlich noch zwei oder mehrere Behandlungen.